Straightening the Grain of the Fabric

Straightening the grain of your fabric is part of the process of preparing your fabric to get that professional look you want. It is absolutely essential prior to cutting your fashion fabric. In fact, both the pattern and fabric may both need attention before you do the final layout, and the success of your finished garment depends on how you prepared your fabric.

In order to understand why you should straighten the grain of the fabric, I think you should know a little about how fabrics are made or constructed.

One of the oldest methods of making fabrics is by interlacing two sets of threads together in a process known as weaving. One set of threads is stretched on a frame (loom) and is called the warp or lengthwise threads.

The other set is inserted so that they go over and under the warp threads to form a fabric. Since these threads travel back and forth from one side to the other, they are called crosswise or filling threads.

As the filling threads go back and forth, they go around the warp threads on the edges and form a self-edge, or what is called the selvage. This selvage edge is woven and smooth and it does not stretch or ravel.

During the manufacturing process, the fabric may have been pulled off-grain, so that grain lines are no longer perfect right angles. A garment made with an off-grain fabric will not hang correctly, so re-alignment must be done before cutting.

In clothing design and construction, the threads are referred to as grain. Grains indicate the direction of the thread. The warp threads are known as the lengthwise grain and usually run lengthwise on the body, from shoulder to hemline. The lengthwise grain has very little give or stretch.

The filling threads are called crosswise or around the body. The crosswise grain has more flexibility, drapes differently and gives a fuller look to the garment. As a rule, the crosswise grain is only used vertically to achieve a certain design effect, as in border print placement.

Every woven fabric such as cotton, silk, linen, or wool, consists of crosswise threads worked under and over the more sturdy lengthwise threads.

Then, there is another direction of fabric often referred to as the bias. Bias is the exact diagonal of a square of fabric. Now, the bias stretches the most, and a garment that is cut out on a bias usually drapes softly. It also tends to be unstable at the hemline.

Designers make use of the way the lengthwise, crosswise, or bias grain stretches or holds its shape and the way it hangs on the body. If the garment is designed to have the grain go in a certain direction, then it will not hang the same or look the same if the grain direction is changed when you cut out the fabric. For this reason, all garment pattern pieces are marked with arrows indicating the direction of the grain.

The placement of the grain on your body is very important in fitting clothes. If you see a bulge or wrinkle when you wear your garment, it usually means the grain needs to be raised or lowered at that point.

The curves in your body will cause the fabric to stretch tightly or hang loosely in the wrong places, and means that the grain has been pushed or pulled out of line.

When side seams do not hang properly over your hips, abdomen, or buttocks and you are constantly pulling or tugging at the side of your garment, it could mean that the grain is not in the correct position.

So, the four most important things you want to remember are:

The grain, or threads, of a fabric greatly influence the way your garment hangs or drapes.
The lengthwise grain threads are firm and do not stretch.
The crosswise threads may stretch slightly.
The bias of a fabric stretches easily.

How to Straighten the Grain of Your Fabric
You can choose from several methods of straightening the grain of your fabric, depending on how much your fabric is off-grain.

Your fabric is on-grain when the crosswise and lengthwise threads are at perfect right angles to each other. If your fabric does not match the ends and selvages according to your pattern Cutting Guide when you begin to fold the fabric, it may be off-grain.

You will want to check the grain after the ends have been evened by aligning a large corner of the fabric with the corner of your cutting board or table. If the corners do not match, straightening the grain of your fabric is not only in order, but is an absolute must.

The first step you want to take with your fabric so that it can be folded evenly is to check for grain alignment, or what we call straightening the end. Depending on the type of fabric you have, you can choose from three different methods:

Tearing is the fastest, but appropriate only for firmly woven fabrics like muslin or cotton, but can still cause the fabric to stretch. If you use the same method on other fabric types, you may cause it to snag or stretch more than you want and create more problems.
Drawing a thread method is slower, but the most suitable for loosely woven, soft, or stretchy fabrics.
Cutting on a prominent line that you can easily follow is a quick, simple method for any fabric that has a strong woven linear design like linen.

With either method, you can test the accuracy by pulling a thread from one selvage edge to the other selvage edge. If the thread ends or breaks off anywhere other than the opposite edge of your fabric, you should locate the point where the where the threads are lowest and start the process again from the lowest point.

If you notice that after straightening the edge or aligning the grain, your fabric does not match the ends and selvages according to your pattern Cutting Guide when you begin to fold the fabric, it may only be slightly off-grain.

If the fabric is only slightly off-grain, the solution is to steam press the fabric to gently urge the threads into proper alignment before you go any further. Fold your fabric, right sides together, in half lengthwise and pin about every five inches along the selvages and ends.

You may also need to pin your fabric to the ironing board just to keep it square as you press. Make firm strokes with a good steam iron from the selvages toward the fold.

Keep in mind that not every off-grain fabric can be corrected; especially if the fabric has been treated in some way with a water repellent or permanent press finish, or a bonded backing. You will have to decide how the off-grain fabric will effect the finished look and fit of the garment you are spending your time and labor to sew.

Straightening the grain of your fabric should be done first!

Find out how your finished garment will look when you straighten the grain of fabric and get other helpful tips to sewing your own professional-looking garment at

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Top 4 Reasons Your Grain Choices Are Harming You

There is a lot of buzz about what type of grains you should be eating or if you should even be consuming any at all. You’ve probably been told (too many times to count) to eat whole grains. But, more often than not, I find that what people think are whole grains actually are not. There can be a lot of confusion in this area since there are so many labels out there with the word “grain” on them. You likely mistake multi-grain or seven-grain for whole grain, though there is a noteworthy difference.

Whole grains contain 100% of the contents included in the original seed, or kernel, from which they derive. The entire whole grain kernel consists of the bran, endosperm and germ. These three elements must be present in order to qualify as whole grain.

The bran is the hard, outer layer of the cereal grain that contains nutrients, fiber, and essential fatty acids. Over time, the essential fatty acids present in the bran can go rancid and cause the grain to go bad. Removal of the bran, therefore, results in a longer shelf life. The endosperm is the starchy component of the grain. Endosperm contains protein, carbohydrates and oil. Gluten is a protein found in the endosperm that provides elasticity and a chewy texture to most bread products. Germ is the reproductive center of the grain. Germ contains fiber and several nutrients.

Refined grains are those in which the whole grain is refined, or processed to remove parts of the grain. Bran and germ are the parts that are typically removed from refined grains leaving only the endosperm. Refined grains are not considered as nutritious as whole grains because with the removal of the bran and the germ, the grain also loses fiber and several other nutrients.

If your meal choices predominantly include refined grains over whole grains, then you are probably experiencing a whole host of undesirable symptoms that range from moodiness and decreased energy levels to weight gain.

Let’s take a deeper look into the 4 reasons why your grain choices are harming you and how to mitigate these effects by switching to whole grains.

1) Your blood sugar spikes, then you crash: Refined grains are digested more quickly than whole grains. The quick digestive process turns these refined grains into simple sugars that cause your blood sugar to spike, and then quickly crash. Dramatic blood sugar swings suck your energy from you leaving you feeling tired and moody. Switching to whole grains can help you avoid the swings, energy drains and moodiness. The fiber contained in whole grains helps to slow the absorption of sugars, thereby providing prolonged energy.

2) You have major digestive problems: Constipation is most common for those who consume mostly refined grains. This is due to the lack of fiber content in refined grains. To avoid constipation and keep your digestive tract regular, switch to whole grains which retain the fiber component of the kernel. Fiber acts as a natural laxative by increasing stool bulk which promotes the movement of stool more readily through your colon.

3) You are gaining weight: Due to the lack of fiber, refined grains lack the “filling factor”. Filling factor refers to how full you feel during or after meals. Since refined grains lack important factor, you may find yourself consuming more than you should. The fiber in whole grains keeps you feeling fuller longer thereby decreasing the amount you eat which will help you lose weight if you are overweight.

4) Your triglyceride levels are rising: Increased amounts of refined grains in your diet cause a rapid spike in insulin, which can cause triglyceride levels to shoot up. High levels of triglycerides in your blood can contribute to cardiovascular disease, as well as inflammation that can worsen arthritis. Switching to whole grains will keep your triglycerides in check and lower your risk for cardiovascular disease and inflammation.

As you can see, whole grains have many health benefits. Need some more convincing? Whole grains also help to reduce blood cholesterol, heart disease, obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, switching from refined grains to whole grains will promote positive improvements to your health.

So, what are some types of whole grains that you can begin to explore: amaranth, barley, buckwheat, corn, millet, oats, quinoa, rice, rye, sorghum, teff, triticale, wild rice and wheat. Wheat comes in several varieties including, spelt, emmer, faro, einkorn, kamut, durum, bulgur, cracked wheat and wheat berries. Try incorporating these into your meals and you’ll soon reap the positive benefits.

Bonnie R. Giller helps chronic dieters and people with medical conditions like diabetes take back control so they can get the healthy body and life they want. She does this by creating a tailored solution that combines three essential ingredients: a healthy mindset, nutrition education and caring support. The result is they lose weight and keep it off without dieting and live a healthy life symptom free.

Bonnie is a registered dietitian, certified dietitian-nutritionist and certified diabetes educator. She offers programs for the chronic dieter to achieve long lasting weight loss, for people with diabetes to attain blood sugar control and prevent diabetes complications, and for those suffering with irritable bowel syndrome to identify their food triggers so they can enjoy a symptom free life. Bonnie also treats a variety of other medical conditions, and offers a nutrition program teaching young children how to make healthy food choices.

Get your Free Guide “5 Steps to a Body You Love without Dieting” at

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Why Eat Whole Grain?

Until the past century, Americans have consumed most of their grains as whole grains. However, with the advent of the modern lifestyle and increasing emphasis on convenience, we are now eating only about 11% of our grains as whole grains. Most of the grain foods that we eat are made with highly processed, refined grain rather than with the whole grain.

Whole Grains vs. Refined Grains

Whole grain foods must contain all three parts of the grain: the bran, the germ, and the endosperm.


The outer layer of the seed is full of fiber (both soluble and insoluble), B vitamins (B6, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin), 50-80% of the grain’s minerals (iron, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, selenium, zinc) and phytochemicals (health-promoting plant substances).


This is the embryo within the seed, from which new plant sprouts. It has the highest concentration of nutrients, including B vitamins, vitamin E, trace minerals, healthful unsaturated fats, phytochemicals, and antioxidants.


The kernel is full of starch, 70-75% of the grain’s protein, and a small amount of B vitamins.

Refined grain products contain only the endosperm, and they usually have to be enriched with some nutrients because once the bran and germ portions are removed during milling, nutrient content can be reduced by up to 90%.

Types Of Whole Grains

More Common Whole Grains:

o Barley
o Brown rice
o Cornmeal
o Oats
o Popcorn
o Whole rye
o Whole wheat
o Wild rice

Less Common Whole Grains:

o Amaranth
o Buckwheat (kasha)
o Bulgar (cracked wheat)
o Kamut
o Millet
o Quinoa
o Sorghum
o Spelt
o Triticale

Whole Grains Reduce Health Risks

Most people do not know that eating just one, two, or three extra servings of whole grain foods each day can reap many health benefits and reduce the risk of many major chronic diseases in the future. In fact, eating whole grain foods is associated with a 15-25% reduction in premature death from all causes.

Bowel Disorders

o The insoluble fiber in whole grains helps protect against constipation, hemorrhoids, and diverticulosis (pouches in colon wall).
o It increases stool weight and decreases transit time through the gut, hence, reduces the length of time the bowels are in contact with waste products.
o It improves antioxidant activity and strengthens the surface cells of the colon.
o It increases the immune function of the gut.


o It protects against cancer of the colon, rectum, stomach, pancreas, endometrium (lining of uterus), ovaries, and prostate.

Heart Disease and Stroke

o The soluble fiber in whole grains benefits the heart and circulatory system, and reduces heart disease and stroke rates.
o It decreases cholesterol levels, blood pressure, and blood coagulation.


o It helps you feel full and delay hunger.

Type 2 Diabetes

o It lowers the risk of getting type 2 diabetes and improves blood sugar control in people who already have diabetes.

o It delays stomach emptying and nutrient absorption, reducing the rise in glucose and insulin.

Shopping For Whole Grain Products

o Look for the words “whole grain” in large letters on the package. On the list of ingredients, the first ingredient listed is the one with the highest quantity by weight. Look for the word “whole” in front of the grain, such as “whole wheat”.

o Look for the Whole Grain Stamp (as shown).

o Foods labeled with the words “multi-grain”, “stone-ground”, “cracked wheat”, “seven-grain”, “bran”, or “pumpernickel” are usually not whole grain products.

o Color is not an indication of whole grain. It may just have molasses or caramel food coloring added to achieve the brown color.

o Whole grains can be an excellent source of fiber; most yield 1-4 grams of fiber per serving. Whole wheat contains the highest fiber content.

o Oats and barley are highest in soluble fiber which helps in lowering cholesterol and reducing risk of heart disease as well as controlling blood sugar in people with diabetes.

Ways To Increase Whole Grain Intake

Whole grains taste and feel different to the mouth – they are fuller and nuttier. Therefore, it takes time to retrain your taste buds and adjust to eating whole grains.

o Start your day with a bowl of oatmeal or ready-to-eat whole grain cereal. Watch out for the sugar content in the cereal; select one that has less than 4 grams of sugar per serving.

o Choose whole grain bread, tortillas, or pita pockets for your sandwich at lunch.

o Make your snacks whole grain. Opt for rye crispbread, whole grain rice cakes, crackers, or oatcakes. Check the ingredient label for excessive fat and sodium.

o Try air-popped popcorn as a snack. Don’t go for the pre-popped ones that are smothered in fat, sugar, or salt.

o For white rice lovers, start by replacing half the amount with brown rice. Gradually increase the portion of brown rice as you become more used to it.

o Likewise, for an easier transition, substitute half the white flour with whole wheat flour in your regular recipes for cookies, muffins, quick breads, and pancakes. You can also try replacing the white flour with white whole wheat flour. White whole wheat flour is a whole grain made from albino wheat (instead of red wheat), and is less grainy and has a milder flavor and lighter color. Many stores now carry this flour.

o Add oats to your favorite baking recipes. You can even sprinkle some on your yogurt for crunch and added nutrition.

o Add brown rice, wild rice, barley, or whole grain pasta to your vegetable soup.

o Start off young children with a diet of whole grains; for older children, try the white whole wheat flour. Incorporate whole grains into foods that have lots of flavors, such as burgers with whole grain buns, brown rice medley with vegetables, whole grains in stuffing, quinoa in meat loafs, and whole wheat crust for make-your-own individual pizzas.

In conclusion, whole grains are good for your health. Not only do they help reduce the risk of many chronic diseases, they are also abundant in vitamins, minerals, phytonutrients, antioxidants, fiber, and many other healthful substances. Whole grains do taste and feel different. In the beginning, you will find that there is a tradeoff between taste and health benefits, and it takes time to adjust to whole grains’ heartier texture. However, if you can make an effort to replace more of your refined grains with whole grains, your body will definitely thank you for that.

Carol Chuang is a Certified Nutrition Specialist and a Metabolic Typing Advisor. She has a Masters degree in Nutrition and is the founder of CC Health Counseling, LLC. Her passion in life is to stay healthy and to help others become healthy. She believes that a key ingredient to optimal health is to eat a diet that is right for one’s specific body type. Eating organic or eating healthy is not enough to guarantee good health. The truth is that there is no one diet that is right for everyone. Our metabolisms are different, so should our diets. Carol specializes in Metabolic Typing, helping her clients find the right diet for their Metabolic Type. To learn more about Metabolic Typing, her nutrition counseling practice, and how to get a complimentary phone consultation, please go to

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Multi-Grain, Whole Grain, and Organic Grains – What These Food Label Terms Mean

In a previous article series, I discussed a number of tips to help you understand the complexities and misleading information found on food labels. Unfortunately there is a lot more to understand about food label terminology than what I was able to cover in my previous writings, so today I will cover some additional food label terms that are commonly misunderstood. The terms covered in this article are multi-grain, whole grain, and organic and I chose to cover them together, because they are related and all three can even be used on the same product.

Multi-grain and whole grain are obviously terms used with grains (wheat, corn, rye, etc.), so they are often found on packages of high carbohydrate foods, such as breads, cereals, flour, pasta, etc. Organic is a term that can be used with grains, but it is also used many other types of foods, such as vegetables, meat, dairy products, and fruit. However, for this article I am really just focusing on the term organic as it relates specifically to grains.

Organic Grains – When a raw grain is labeled organic, it means it has been grown and transported without the use of artificial pesticides, chemicals, and other additives, however, natural pesticides may still be used on occasion. Both the grain and the land it is grown on must be considered organic for the ingredient to be certified organic. As a side note, when dealing with foods like meat, there are also requirements for additives, such as hormones, which do not apply for grains.

Raw organic grains are more natural and healthier than their non-organic counterparts, but when it comes to foods labeled as organic, there is some room for manufacturers to add in non-organic ingredients. When every ingredient in a product is certified organic (excluding water and salt), the package can contain the words “100 percent organic.” If non-organic ingredients are included, other terminology must be used. As long as long as 95% of the ingredients are organic, then the product can still be labeled as organic, just not 100 percent organic.

However, that still leaves 5% of the product that can be made up of ingredients that are non-organic and potentially unwanted and unhealthy. Products that do not reach the 95% organic ingredients requirement can instead be labeled with the phrase “made with organic ingredients,” if at least 70% of the ingredients are organic. These labeling standards are important, because it means organic products can still have added ingredients you don’t want to consume, so you should always read the label to know what you are getting.

Whole Grains – A food is considered a whole grain when all parts of the grain are included in a product and they are kept in the same proportions as they exist in nature. A grain has 3 different parts: the endosperm, bran, and germ and if any one is missing or the proportions are wrong, then the ingredient cannot be labeled as a whole grain. Refined products typically only contain the endosperm and are usually missing the bran and germ, which are healthy sources fiber and other nutrients.

Many refined ingredients will often be “enriched,” which sounds better than it actually is. Nutrients are are removed from the grain during the refining process, but some nutrients can be added back later, which then makes the product enriched. Unfortunately, enriched products generally have more nutrients removed then they have added during the enriching process, so the net result is an inferior product. Also, the added nutrients may be of poorer quality than the ones that were removed in the first place.

Multi-Grain – This term is fairly self-explanatory, but people often think it means more than it actually does. When a product has multi-grain on the label it simply means that more than one type of grain is included in the ingredients. People often assume the grains are whole grains, but multi-grain only refers to the number of grains and it does not have any bearing on the quality of the grains in the product.

If a product is made with white flour and white rice flour, both of which are refined, it is still a multi-grain product because it has two different types of grains. Whole grain and organic products can also be multi-grain of they have multiple whole grains or organic grains, but much of the time these products do not even have the multi-grain label, because it is not as important as the labels of whole grain or organic.

For instance, the Kashi brand has the tagline “The Seven Whole Grain Company” and they have a trademarked combination of whole grain ingredients including wheat, rice, oats, triticale, barley, rye, and buckwheat. These are all whole grains, so any product with these ingredients is by definition multi-grain, but multi-grain is not printed anywhere on the product, because it is essentially a meaningless term.

Companies often use the term multi-grain on products to make them sound healthier than they are, especially when the product contains poor quality refined grains. If a company has the choice between listing a product as organic, whole grain, or multi-grain, they will almost always make the terms organic and whole grain the priority. Multi-grain is often used when neither of the other terms applies to the product.

To sum things up, grain products that are labeled 100% organic or organic have few if any added or unwanted ingredients or byproducts from things like pesticides. On the other hand, just because a product is organic it does not guarantee the product is healthy, because ingredients like white flour, which is unhealthy, can still be organic if it was processed using organic methods. However, most organic grain based products are rather healthy.

Whole grain products are also usually healthy and they contain all 3 parts of the grain, which means they should have all the nutrients found in the natural product. Products with whole grains can still have unwanted added ingredients, especially in packaged products such as breads and cereals, but the grains themselves are healthier than the refined grains found in other products.

Products with the multi-grain label only claim to have more than one type of grain included in the product and nothing more. For me, the multi-grain label acts as a warning sign and causes me take a closer look at the rest of the label, especially the ingredients list. That way I can see if the product has quality grains or if it simply has multiple inferior ingredients, which is unfortunately often the case.

If you buy a lot of packaged products and want to find the grain products with the highest quality, it is best to look for products that are both organic and made with whole grains. These products are naturally the most expensive, especially when it comes to packaged products, so if you want to save some money, the best combination of health and value can be found when buying whole grain products with minimal unhealthy added ingredients.

On the other hand, if you don’t mind cooking with raw whole grains, you can get some great deals even when they are organic. The bulk organic whole grains sold at many stores, such as brown rice, oats, wheat, etc. are often less expensive than packaged products containing inferior quality grains. The trade off is they do take some extra preparation time, but if you don’t mind cooking, they are often a very healthy and economical way to go.

Ross Harrison, CSCS, NSCA-CPT is a certified personal trainer, strength and conditioning specialist, nutritional consultant, and has a BA in psychology from Grinnell College. He takes a holistic approach to health and fitness and teaches people how to lose weight, get in shape, and improve their quality of life with exercise and nutrition. If you want to find out more about his services or contact him for any reason, please visit

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